Education in India has a history stretching back to the ancient urban centres of learning at Taxila and Nalanda. Western education ingrained into Indian society with the establishment of the British Raj. Education in India falls under the control of both Union Government and the States, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the States having autonomy for others.
The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide Education as a fundamental right. Most Universities in India are Union or State Government controlled. India has made a huge progress in terms of increasing primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population. India’s improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India. Much of the progress in education has been credited to various private institutions. The private education market in India is estimated to be worth $40 billion in 2008 and will increase to $68 billion by 2013.
However, India continues to face challenges. Despite growing investment in education, 40% of the population is illiterate and only 15% of the students reach high school. Three Indian Universities were listed in the times higher education list of the Worlds’s top 200 Universities - Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management, and Jawaharlal Nehru University in 2005 and 2006. Six Indian Institutes of Technology and Birla Institutes of Technology and Science-Pilani were listed among the top 20science and technology schools in Asia by Asia week. The Indian School of Business situated in Hyderabad was ranked number 12 in global MBA rankings by the Financial Times of London in 2010 while the All India Institute of Medical Sciences has been recognized as a global leader in medical research and treatment.
The selection procedure for Medicine, Engineering and Management Courses in reputed Government Institutions is very tough. It is through Entrance Examinations only wherein the marking is done on negative marking principle. As such, majority of students do not get seats in Government Institutions and they are totally dependent on private Institutions.